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Alternative Energy Generators/Hydro Generator/ Turgo Turbine Generator
Turgo turbine is a type of impulse turbine. It is mainly composed of nozzles and runners. The runner is composed of an outer rim, an inner hub and a number of single bowl-shaped buckets fixed between them. The nozzle jet obliquely impacts the blades on the front of the runner at an angle of 22.5° and then flows out from the back. The structure is simple, the cost is low, but the efficiency is low. Only used in small power stations. The applicable water head is 15~300 m.
When the oblique water turbine is working, water flows from the pressure water pipe through the nozzle to form a high-speed jet, which impacts the runner blades in a 22.5° direction with the runner plane. The water flow after the work flows out from the water outlet edge of the vane, and is discharged downstream along the tailrace channel.
In order to ensure the free flow of the jet, the turbine runner must be installed above the tailrace water level, and the distance between the runner and the tailrace water level is not less than 0.5 meters.
1). Convert water energy to mechanical energy
A water turbine is a machine that converts water energy into mechanical energy. The parameters describing water energy are head (H m) and flow rate (Q m 3 /sec). The working parameters describing the turbine are head (Hm), flow rate (Qm3/sec), power (N kW), speed (n revolutions/min) and efficiency (η%).
When the water jet hits the vane, the vane changes the direction of the water flow, that is, the force of the vane to the water flow. According to the law of action reaction, the water flow gives the vane a reaction force. The blades are caused to rotate around the axis, thereby driving the generator or other processing machinery. This is the process of converting water energy into mechanical energy.
2). Factors affecting the output power of the turbine
The rated power of a water turbine refers to the shaft power output by the water turbine under the rated head and rated flow. When the actual working head of the turbine is less than the rated head proposed by the turbine manufacturer, even though the inlet valve is fully opened, the turbine power is still less than the rated power and the generator cannot carry the rated load. At this time, if the generator is equipped with a nameplate, the electric load is manifested as insufficient voltage, the cycle drops, the motor cannot be started, and the light turns red. The actual output of the turbine cannot reach the nameplate output. In another case, the valve opening is insufficient, or the water inlet is blocked by dirt, which affects the water intake. Similarly, the turbine cannot generate sufficient rated power.
The output power of a hydraulic turbine is not only closely related to the size of the head and flow, but also related to the efficiency of the turbine. In the process of converting the energy of the water flow into mechanical energy, due to the loss of flow and water head, the water flow has collision and friction losses during the flow of the runner, so that the output mechanical energy of the water turbine is less than the water energy. The ratio of the output power of the turbine shaft to the hydraulic energy (power) of the input turbine is called the efficiency of the turbine.
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